Close Quarters

Picture of the dust cover of "Close Quarters"

References and relusions from Angela Thirkell’s Close Quarters, first published in 1958. Compiled by Sue Jenkins

Chapter 1

5 Borough of Riverside – Chelsea, London SW3, where Angela Thirkell lived at 1 Shawfield Street. Also Enter Sir Robert and A Double Affair.

Borrioboola Gha – Fictional African country in Dickens’s Bleak House which Mrs Jellaby supports to the detriment of her own household. Also Miss Bunting, where Dr Dale appears to think it is a real place; and The Old Bank House where there is “a boring correspondence in the Times about the need for a new College of Empire Economics” there.

6 PMG – the Postmaster General, a ministerial position overseeing the postal system and telecommunications, abolished in 1969. Also A Double Affair.

St Jude’s – Fictional Oxford college, probably a nod to Max Beerbohm’s Zuleika Dobson. Also A Double Affair, in which George Halliday sets the record for walking round the quad on the outside of the buildings but only at first-floor level.

the eightieth son of the Head Chief of Mngangaland – Angela Thirkell completely lost track of this character whom we know through Dr Joram. Like all his brothers he was called Melba. See Peace Breaks Out, Zuleika Dobson. Also Love Among The Ruins, The Old Bank House, What Did It Mean, Never Too Late, Three Score and Ten.

Head Witch Doctor – Spent a year at Keble before succeeding to the post. Well under Dr Joram’s thumb.

Cupid’s darts – when this Roman god (Greek Eros) shot a golden arrow at anyone they immediately fell in love. Remembered fondly in the quatrain about the Victorian educationalists: “Miss Buss and Miss Beale/Cupid’s darts do not feel;/How different from us,/Miss Beale and Miss Buss.”

Glamora Tudor – appears as the ageless star of countless Hollywood epics, first in The Brandons, then throughout the novels with a differently-named co-star for each film. See also page 246.

Cyrano de Bergerac – the real Cyrano (1619-1655) was a novelist and playwright but he is chiefly known through the 1897 play by Edmond Rostand. In this he is cursed with an abnormally large nose (Latin naso) and believes that because of this his adored Roxane can never love him. Rostand’s La Princesse Lointaine crops up in Northbridge Rectory where Betty has very improbably read it in French!

Condottiere – a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars between Italian states 14th – 16th centuries. One of Angela Thirkell’s digs about the ignorance of film-makers when they mess around with historical facts. See also page 246.

7 Czemschk – A director of mainstream films such as this would pretty certainly have changed his name (like Elia Kazan from Elias Kazantzoglou). This name is more suitable for a director of the arthouse films enjoyed by Hilary Grant in The Brandons.

Mrs Fairweather – formerly Rose Birkett, who appears mainly in Summer Half, although she’s mentioned in High Rising. Her character develops upon marriage as shown by her kind-hearted attentions to Margot in Jutland Cottage.

Edith Graham – Youngest child of Robert and Agnes, first appears as a 3 year-old in Marling Hall. Her abrupt engagement at the end of A Double Affair is followed by marriage to the younger brother of the Duke of Towers in Love at All Ages.

Euclid – mathematician in Ancient Greece whose treatise Elements set the foundations for geometry that prevailed until the 19th century. Aubrey Clover comments that “one never hears of him now”, to which Denis Stonor replies “He was taken over by some people called Geometry” in Love Among The Ruins.

West India Sugar Broker – in W. S. Gilbert’s Bab Ballads this character becomes fatter and fatter until he resembles a large ball. In Jutland Cottage Canon Fewling’s figure is almost the same.

John Leslie’s office – this is where Mary Preston comes during her visit to London and cries about David Leslie. They later marry and have three sons (though in Marling Hall they are girls!) In Jutland Cottage John Leslie retires and lives in the Old Rectory.

Mr Crosse – we meet John-Arthur in Enter Sir Robert. He was the son of Lord Crosse whom Angela Thirkell originally spelt ‘Cross’ until it was pointed out that this was a real person, Lord Cross of Chelsea.

8 Lord Aberfordbury – see below, page 107.

Canon Fewling – Father Fewling first appears in Northbridge Rectory as priest-in-charge at St Sycorax. Rose to the rank of Commander in the Royal Navy and is nicknamed Tubby.

Foolish virgins – Bible, St Matthew’s Gospel chapter 25.

Captain and Mrs Gresham – For their story see Miss Bunting.

Greshamsbury House – Appears in Trollope’s Dr Thorne as the property of Mr Francis Gresham.

10 Mixo-Lydians – This is Angela Thirkell’s invention, parallel to Czecho-Slovakians. It is a good musical joke because the Mixo-Lydian mode is a Greek musical key: it is the fifth of seven: Ionian, Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, Mixolydian, Aeolian and Locrian. Interestingly it is used in jazz/rock.

11 Dean of Paul’s – a fictional Oxford college. Charles Ravenshoe was rusticated (sent down) from it in Henry Kingsley’s Ravenshoe: Angela Thirkell makes frequent reference to this work.

that tears it – an expression no longer in use meaning “that’s done it/that’s enough”.

12 HONOR EST A NILO – anagram of Horatio Nelson referring to his victory at the Battle of the Nile 1st August 1798.

Mr Umbleby – decendant of Yates Umbleby, Mr Gresham’s agent in Trollope’s Dr Thorne.

13 some dozen children eating as one – William Wordsworth poem ‘Lines written in March’: “The cattle are grazing,/Their heads never raising;/There are forty feeding like one!”

fall on them with fire and sword – An old Scottish legal instrument: if a criminal resisted the law, Letters of Fire and Sword were issued to the Sheriff authorising him to use any means to apprehend the delinquent.

elder daughter Beatrice – Frank Gresham’s favourite sister who married Caleb Oriel, Rector of Greshamsbury in Dr Thorne.

14 Lord Saltire – important character in Henry Kingsley’s novel Ravenshoe.

15 sunt modus in rerum – Horace, Satires of which Mr Umbleby gives the correct version: “There is a mean in things; finally there are certain boundaries, on either side of which moral rectitude cannot exist”. The message of this is, Avoid extremes.

a whacking impot – slang for a massive imposition, a school punishment which could vary in severity from writing lines to difficult translations.

Kamerad – German for comrade. Used as a word of surrender by German soldiers in World War I and employed far too often by Angela Thirkell’s male characters.

Rere-tea – Usually a rere-supper, defined by the OED as a supper following upon the usual evening meal. Angela Thirkell clearly enjoys this and has a rere-breakfast for Colin in Private Enterprise, a rere-tea of biscuits and milk in The Old Bank House, a kind of rere-feast after the Palace garden-party in Happy Returns and a rere-guzzle in Love at All Ages.

Grace and favour – Normally used to describe accommodation occupied free or at very low rent by permission of a sovereign or government.

16 See what the tenants… – The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations assures me that the caption to a Punch cartoon of 1872 reads “Go directly – see what she’s doing and tell her she mustn’t.” Angela Thirkell seems to have remembered this differently as “Go and see what Master Alfred is doing and tell him not to”. Growing Up, Private Enterprise, Love at All Ages.

Mr Wickham – First encountered in Private Enterprise: an ex-naval officer who served in both World Wars and was invalided out after Dunkirk. Known to his friends as Wicks.

Rent the firmament – Macaulay’s poem ‘Horatius’, verse XXV: “But when the face of Sextus/Was seen among the foes,/A yell that rent the firmament/From all the town arose.”

17 Barricade Mysterieuse Les Barricades Mystérieuses, harpsichord pieces by François Couperin, 1717.

SPAB – The Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings, founded by William Morris and others in 1877 to oppose what they regarded as destructive ‘renovations’ of old buildings. Also The Old Bank House where the conversion of the Congregational Church in Edgewood to a cinema drove the Society “nearly mad with rage.”

Morland-ish – George Morland (1763-1804), artist known for depictions of rural scenes.

Society for the Preservation of Rural England – The Council for the Protection of Rural England was founded 1926, later becoming the Campaign to Protect Rural England and now CPRE: The Countryside Charity.

18 exits and entrances – From Shakespeare’s As You Like It, Act 2 scene 7: “All the world’s a stage,/And all the men and woman merely players;/They have their exits and their entrances/And one man in his time plays many parts.” Also The Headmistress where the Hosiers’ girls act some scenes from the play.

Greshamsbury – Described in Trollope’s Dr Thorne as a small village. In Jutland Cottage it had grown considerably and by A Double Affair it had become a fair-sized settlement with an Old and a New Town similarly to the situation in Hallbury (Miss Bunting)

But the so-called working class …had become a horrible Palace of Art – This doesn’t make sense: the new building estate is at fault here! Angela Thirkell may have been thinking of the Palaces of Culture erected throughout the Soviet bloc, or possibly the Glasgow Palace of Art, built 1938 for the Empire Exhibition. It is now a gym.

everything handsome about them – From Shakespeare, Much Ado about Nothing, Act 4 scene 2: “and one that hath two gowns and everything handsome about him.” Also in Happy Returns.

Naboth’s vineyard – In the Bible (1 Kings chapter 21) Naboth owned a garden near the palace of King Ahab which the king wanted for a vegetable garden, but Naboth refused to sell or accept an alternative plot of land. The wicked Queen Jezebel set up false witnesses who swore that he’d committed blasphemy and he was stoned to death. In fact Ahab didn’t even take the land because Elijah told him he had committed a sin.

dish of snapdragon – Popular Victorian parlour game, especially at Christmas. Heated brandy was put in a bowl of raisins and set alight. The company then had to snatch the raisins; in a darkened room the blue flames had a very eerie effect.

Cerberus – In Greek mythology the three-headed dog who guarded the entrance to the Underworld.

19 catalogue of Leporello’s – In Mozart’s opera Don Giovanni the Don’s servant sings a long list of his master’s amorous conquests, such as 640 in Italy, 231 in Germany, 100 in France.

seven maids with seven mops – “If seven maids with seven mops/Swept it [the sand] for half a year,/Do you suppose, the Walrus said/That they could get it clear?/I doubt it, said the Carpenter/And shed a bitter tear.” Lewis Carroll, Through the Looking Glass.

Glory Hole – Originally an overcrowded cell where prisoners were kept on the day of trial, then any place in a house where articles are heaped indiscriminately.

art tea cosy – here “art” is used as an adjective to mean producing an artistic effect, as in “Liberty Art Fabrics”. Angela Thirkell uses it pejoratively (as above, page 8: their houses were a horrid art shape). Also Love at All Ages. I was delighted to find Angela Thirkell’s works cited twice in the Oxford English Dictionary supplement, once for Art Nouveau in Before Lunch and then for “arting it up a bit” in Cheerfulness Breaks In.

20 blue bag – Before modern detergents with optical whiteners, laundry blue was used in the final rinse of white items. The manufacturer was so well known that ‘Reckitt’s blue” described anything bright blue. Maybe the hard Greshamsbury water was to blame for the blue not ‘taking’, or the lace was just too old.

jellied brawn – Made from the flesh of a calf’s or pig’s head boiled and then set in aspic, eaten cold. Also known as ‘head cheese’. In the Drill Hall atmosphere the brawn would need to be in sealed jars, otherwise food poisoning is guaranteed!

Drill Hall – where local Volunteer Forces (later Territorial Army) could drill whatever the weather.

Lord Pomfret – usually too devoted to duty, so Lady Pomfret did well to take him to their villa. This wanders: here and in Love at All Ages, A Double Affair, Never Too Late, Happy Returns and County Chronicle it’s on Cap Ferrat, near Nice; in Before Lunch, The Old Bank House and Love Among The Ruins it’s on Cap Martin, further east.

the doyen – the oldest, most experienced or most respected person in a group.

Oneasyforus – Mr Parkinson had trouble with Onesiphorus, referred to in the Bible (II Timothy chapter 1 verse 16), not surprisingly as he had never heard it said.

Cokelers – Popular name for The Dependant Brethren, a dissenting sect founded in the 19th century whose income derived largely from village shopkeeping. They flourished in Sussex, which is probably where Angela Thirkell came across them.

22 coadjutor – assistant: in ecclesiastical terms one appointed to assist a bishop.

her mother had always been master – As Mrs Welk had died when Mavis was only a toddler (page 34) Mavis couldn’t have experienced much of her masterfulness.

23 Josiah Crawley – in Trollope’s The Last Chronicle of Barset, Mr Crawley has had to walk 15 miles from Hogglestock to Barchester and back, arriving exhausted: “Mrs Crawley, from some secret hoard, got him a small modicum of spirits and gave him meat and tea.”

lest all should think that she was proud… John Gilpin In William Cowper’s poem “The diverting history of John Gilpin” his wife does not allow the hired chaise to stop at their door, but three doors down the street.

noiseless tenor – Thomas Gray poem “Elegy in a Country Churchyard”, in the passage that begins “Far from the madding crowd’s ignoble strife”.

murrain – a plague or epidemic.

the willingness was all – The actual quotation from Hamlet Act 5 scene 2 is “the readiness is all.”

Snowball – First citation 1892: “Each giver being obliged to bind himself to find a certain number of others who will not only give but bind themselves to find an equal number of contributors.”

raffia – long thin fibre made from the leaves of the raffia palm. Durable and used for tying up plants, but also for weaving or knitting into bags, hats and suchlike.

25 guest towels – In Miss Bunting even Heather has learned enough to realise that “people like [Jane Gresham] don’t have guest towels.” As non-U as raffia hats! In 1955 Nancy Mitford wrote an essay that introduced the terms ‘U’ (upper class) and ‘non-U’, referring to terms that would reveal one’s social class.

Brownscu – Angela Thirkell’s version of Ionescu, Jones and Brown being equally common surnames.

26 Peter Ibbetson – 1891 novel by George du Maurier, grandfather of Daphne, who had a great success with Trilby in 1894. The eponymous hero is called Gogo as a child; later he falls in love with a Duchess of Towers. The film of the book came out in 1935.

party at Southbridge School – Rose can’t have met Mme Brownscu there as she was in South America after her marriage (Cheerfulness Breaks In).

27 Ambassadress – We have first met her as Gradka the maid in Miss Bunting where she dislikes all her fellow Mixo-Lydian refugees. See also note on page 239 below.

Face-a-main – A lorgnon or lorgnette, though our friend Mrs Morland despises the last two expressions.

idiotism – the French word idiotisme, meaning idiom, untranslatable into other languages.

Joe Parkinson – born in 1952 , so should be at school by now.

28 electric washing machine – in 1958 a Hotpoint Princess machine cost from 47 guineas, or £5.7s.0d deposit and nine monthly payments of £5.7s.6d. You’d think that the couple could afford one since Mavis’s father made over to her “a most respectable sum of money” in Happy Returns.

Like Gaul – Julius Caesar’s On the Gallic War [De Bello Gallico] famously begins “Gaul as a whole is divided into three parts.”

29 pieds ronds – literally ’round feet’. A French slang term for being drunk, because staggering as if the soles of one’s feet were rounded.

Knobs, corns, whelks and bubukles – Bardolph’s face in Henry V Act 3 scene 6.

Anatole France – “‘You can pull [the laces] a bit harder’ said the penguin”: in his satirical novel L’Ile des Pingouins, 1908.

30 nightgown case – a favourite topic of Angela Thirkell’s, epitomising bad taste.

Slumber Dear Maid – “Slumber, dear maid, green boughs shall cover you” begins one version of ‘Ombra mai fu’ from Handel’s opera Xerxes. What Rose heard in Malta was a too-literal translation of “Ombra mai fu/Di vegetabile/Cara ed amabile/Soave piu.”

Silent Navy – an expression sometimes used of the Royal Navy, but now used for the RN Submarine Service. The RN is usually known as the Senior Service.

Ackcherly – see comments below for page 235.

31 Funiculi, funicula – Neapolitan song composed 1880 to commemorate the first funicular railway up Mount Vesuvius.

The day we went to Brighton in the motor car – cannot trace this.

All were silent and held their countenances intently – Probably a version of the opening of The Aeneid Book 2: “All were hushed and sate with steadfast faces”, as translated by J. W. Mackail.

Fluttering and scuffling

34 There are chords in the human breast – In Dickens’s Bleak House Mr Guppy says “Jobling, there are chords in the human mind”. Also Enter Sir Robert. “There are chords in the human heart” appears in The Old Curiosity Shop.

Golden Gates – the entrance to Heaven, more usually the Pearly Gates as described in the Bible: Revelation chapter 21 verse 21.

35 loved and cherished – from the Marriage service: “to love and to cherish, till death do us part.”

36 Christian’s burden – In John Bunyan’s The Pilgrim’s Progress Christian leaves the City of Destruction with a heavy burden of sin on his back to seek the Celestial City. After many detours he finds the right road and the burden falls from him. See also page 270 below.

his lines had fallen unto him in pleasant places – Psalm 16 verse 6: “The lines are fallen unto me in pleasant places.”

no longer did his old wounds bleed anew – “Dead Henry’s wounds/Open their congeal’d mouths and bleed afresh.” (Shakespeare, Richard III, Act 1 scene 2). There was a belief that old wounds bled again in the presence of the murderer.

Chapter 2

37 Hors concours – out of the running, as already pre-eminent in the field.

coadjutor – see note for page 22 above.

modest quencher – “Mr Swiveller replied … that he was still open to a modest quencher.” Dickens, The Old Curiosity Shop.

Thor and the dweller in Jotunheim – In Norse legend, the god Thor journeyed to Jotunheim, home of the giants. He was challenged to a drinking contest but however much he drank was unable to empty the drinking horn. The giants later revealed that the end of the horn was in the sea and Thor’s draught had appreciably lowered the sea level.

Nasser – In 1952 a military coup overthrew King Farouk of Egypt and established a republic. Gamal Abdul Nasser was its second president and in 1956 he nationalised the Suez Canal. This precipitated invasion by Israel, followed by France and Britain. The Suez Crisis resulted in British humiliation and loss of influence as a major world power.

38 Brother Laurence – Robert Browning’s poem ‘The Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister’: “If hate killed men, Brother Lawrence,/God’s blood, would not mine kill you?” Angela Thirkell has got this the wrong way round: Brother Lawrence (the correct spelling) drains his watered orange pulp in one gulp whereas the narrator drinks his in three sips to symbolise the Trinity and frustrate the Arian. See also The Brandons , Northbridge Rectory, The Duke’s Daughter, The Old Bank House.

The Times front page – Up to 1966 the front page was occupied by small advertisements and announcements of Births, Marriages and Deaths.

39 the Navy League – Founded in 1894 this was a patriotic organisation that campaigned for greater public awareness of the role of the Royal Navy in safeguarding British interests. Its archive is housed at the Royal Museums Greenwich.

40 giddy harumfrodite – Rudyard Kipling’s poem about the Marines, ‘Soldier and Sailor Too’ contains the lines: “‘E isn’t one o’ the regular line, nor ‘e isn’t one o’ the crew./’E’s a kind of a giddy harumfrodite [hermaphrodite], soldier an’ sailor too.”

41 Luke and Huxley – Angela Thirkell’s rendering of Marks & Spencer. Along with Gaiters for Boots the Chemists, Sheepshanks (Woolworths), P. B. Baker (W. H. Smith) and Empire and Fireside (Home and Colonial).

42 crypto-Spanish sherry – ‘crypto’ as a prefix, as in ‘crypto-Communist’, normally means someone concealing their true allegiance to a cause. Here the sense is ‘ersatz’.

43 “I had to stay at home” – When the Parkinsons arrived in Pomfret Madrigal (County Chronicle) Mrs Miller recommends Mrs Thatcher as always ready to oblige as a baby-sitter for sixpence an hour.

A very present help – Psalm 46, verse 1: “God is our refuge and strength, a very present help in trouble.”

Do good by stealth – “Do good by stealth and blush to find it fame.” Alexander Pope, Imitations of Horace (1738). See also below page 103.

44 kitchen range in a dreadful state – Perhaps more an indication of Mrs Parkinson’s anxiety than a fact, as Mrs Miller would have managed her household very well. (Also we are told that Mrs Brandon had a modern stove put into the Vicarage while the Millers were on their honeymoon – see Cheerfulness Breaks In.

fridge – Francis Brandon gave them a fridge when Joe was born (Happy Returns), so it is likely to be a bit chipped by now.

46 Geraldine – Geraldine Birkett gets engaged to Captain Geoff Fairweather in Cheerfulness Breaks In, after which there are few references to her apart from her depression at not being able to work after her first child is born.

Heavenly Visitant – An angel. “I would ask those mountains why they no longer received heavenly visitants”: Benjamin Disraeli novel Tancred (1847), perhaps the least read of his works.

47 Macfadyens – Their history starts in Jutland Cottage. Still not married in What Did It Mean. On honeymoon in Enter Sir Robert.

Health doctors – Angela Thirkell’s middle- and upper-class characters frequently speak of the National Health Service as a money-wasting scheme with the chief aim of supplying the working class with false teeth and spectacles which they don’t need.

48 inheritance of friendship – Can’t trace this as a quotation but a similar expression occurs on page 121 (about the Updike family).

Beloved Physician – Bible, Colossians chapter 4 verse 14: “Luke the beloved physician and Demas greet you.”

He that blesseth… – Bible, Proverbs, chapter 27 verse 14. Canon Fewling quotes this correctly.

49 The Old Man – the ship’s Captain.

out of the mouth – Psalm 8 verse 2: frequently misquoted as “out of the mouths”.

50 Palmyra – Named after Mrs Palmer. Referred to a number of times (eg August Folly, Growing Up) but never appears in person.

pulled every wire – ‘pulling strings’ is the usual idiom for getting things done, but ‘wire’ is more suitable to dealing with telephones.

51 Middle East – see note for page 37.

Harold and Connie – It seemed on page 22 as if the Parkinsons already had the attic fitted up for the three children.

Jasper – The part-Gypsy gamekeeper to Sir Harry Waring in Growing Up. The title Old Jasper suggests that this man cannot be his nephew. Some editing was needed here.

53 Direct Inspiration – Sent directly from God.

Her Majesty – Queen Elizabeth II visited Canada and the USA in October 1957.

54 ‘Slumber Dear Maid’ or ‘Ombra mai fu’ – see note on page 30 above.

Asia to Peru – Samuel Johnson, Vanity of Human Wishes: “Let observation, with extensive view/Survey mankind from China to Peru.” See also A Double Affair, Love at All Ages, Love Among The Ruins.

The Immortal Hour – Opera by Rutland Boughton from the play by William Sharp: it had a record-breaking run after opening in 1922. Its most famous song begins “How beautiful they are”, presumably the Calling Song.

Aeneas’s audience – see note for page 31.

55 ‘He shall feed his flock” – Aria for solo alto and soprano from part 1 of Messiah by G. F.Handel.

as the fly – John Gay, The Beggar’s Opera: “The fly that sips treacle is lost in the sweets.”

made passionate – Shakespeare, Love’s Labour’s Lost, Act 3 scene 1: “Warble, child; make passionate my sense of hearing.”

Melba – Dame Nellie Melba (1861-1931) Famous Australian soprano, The favourite singer of Head Chief of Mngangaland!

56 No bigger than a man’s hand – “Behold, there ariseth a little cloud out of the sea, like a man’s hand.” Bible, I Kings chapter 18 verse 44.

I know their tricks and their manners – Said by Jenny Wren, the disabled dolls’ dressmaker: Dickens, Our Mutual Friend. Also Peace Breaks Out.

57 buried past the depth of plummet – “And deeper than did ever plummet sound/I’ll drown my book.” Prospero in Shakespeare’s The Tempest Act 5 scene 1. Also **

59 ‘Well, well, Shakespeare isn’t dead’ – Cook is echoing the words spoken by the Hostess about Falstaff’s death in Henry V, Act 2 scene 2.

Nasser – see above, page 37.

Cruskoff – Nikita Krushchev (1894-1971), leader of the USSR 1956-64. Hard-line attitude to the West at the height of the Cold War, supported Egypt in the Suez Crisis.

Syprots – Cypriots. From 1955 Cyprus, annexed by Britain in 1914, saw a violent campaign by Greek Cypriots for Enosis (union with Greece).

60 No arguing, no pack-drill – Mr Wickham’s variant on ‘No names, no pack-drill’.

Crossword Puzzle – The first puzzles appeared in the US, first published in Britain 1924. There is a similar passage in Enter Sir Robert.

The Thunderer – a popular name for The Times newspaper by the mid-1800s because of its independent commentary. Doubtful if this expression was still in common use.

EME; ORLOP – eme= uncle; orlop = deck of a ship

61 turning one’s face to the wall – Dying. Bible, Isaiah chapter 38 verse 2: “Then Hezekiah turned his face to the wall and prayed to the Lord.”

Old Alliance – An alliance was signed between the kingdoms of Scotland and France in 1294. Auld Alliance is the term used for the longstanding friendship between the two nations combined with hostility to England. Also Happy Returns.

62 a wink was as good as a nod … – More usually finishes “to a blind horse”. Mr Wickham uses the correct version on page 89.

63 obiter dicta – incidental remark

locusts have eaten -“I will restore to you the years that the locust has eaten”:

Adscriptus glebae – a serf bound to the land, tied to one manor and passed on like other possessions. Occurs again below, page 142. Also Love Among The Ruins, Never Too Late.

Going to and fro – “And the Lord said unto Satan, From whence comest thou? And Satan answered the Lord and said From going to and fro in the earth and walking up and down in it.” Bible, Job chapter 2 verse 2.

64 Lesbos – Island in the Northern Aegean, also called Lesvos or Mitilini. Birthplace of the poet Sappho who celebrated love between women.

‘My Lesbia hath a beaming eye’ – “My Lesbia hath a beaming eye/But no one knows for whom it beameth.” Thomas Moore (1779-1852). In County Chronicle Miss Hampton considers My Lesbia has a roving eye as possible title for her latest novel, but settles on My Sister, My Spouse.

65 strong benevolence – see note for page 124

souffre-douleur – scapegoat. Here in the sense of a confidant on whom one can unload all one’s pain.

Sir Omicron Pie – Grandson of Trollope’s famous London physician. As he is an orthopaedic surgeon (he amputates Tommy Needham’s arm in Love Among The Ruins he wouldn’t be much real help to Mr McFadyen anyway.

66 Tide in the life of man – Rather out of keeping with the original: “There is a tide in the affairs of men/Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune.” (Shakespeare, Julius Caesar Act 4 scene 3.

little wandering – The Roman Emperor Hadrian wrote ‘Anima vagula blandula’: “Little soul, wandering, pleasant,/Guest and companion of the body,/Into what places will you go now,/pale, stiff/naked, nor will you play/Any longer as you used to do.”

Ingans, syboes and neeps – Scots for onions, spring onions and turnips

policies – The park and gardens of a country house (Scottish and north of England)

the Kingdom of Fife – Fife’s existence as a distinct entity is said to be traceable back to the Pictish Kingdom of Fife, but the earliest record of the name is 1671.

67 touch of a vanished hand – from Tennyson’s poem ‘Break, break, break’: “But O for the touch of a vanish’d hand,/And the sound of a voice that is still!”

black crape – alternative spelling of crepe. See also page 91 below.

68 Mrs Wilfer – mother of Bella in Dickens’s Our Mutual Friend.

69 Through Greshamsbury – Anthony Trollope sited most of Dr Thorne in this village.

ships that pass – “Ships that pass in the night, and speak to each other in passing;/Only a signal shown, and a distant voice in the darkness; /So on the ocean of life we pass and speak one another, /Only a look and a voice; then darkness again and a silence.” Henry Wadsworth Longfellow poem ‘The Theologian’s Tale’.

sortes Oxfordianae – sortes Virgilianae was the mediaeval practice of opening the works of Virgil at random and using the passing lit upon as prophecy and advice. Also Love Among The Ruins in which Philip does the same thing with the Oxford Book of English Verse.

aperçu – a brief comment that makes an illuminating point.

Fluellen – A Welsh captain in Shakepeare’s Henry V (Act 4 scene 1): “If you would take the pains but to examine the wars of Pompey the Great, you shall find, I warrant you, that there is no tiddle-taddle nor bibble-babble in Pompey’s camp.

architect of Pomfret Towers – see Pomfret Towers, where it has been erected from plans prepared in the office of Sir Gilbert Scott.

familiar faces – “I have been laughing, I have been carousing,/Drinking late, sitting late, with my bosom cronies./All, all are gone, the old familiar faces.” Charles Lamb poem ‘The Old Familiar Faces’ (1798).

Edward – First a factotum at Southbridge Prep School (High Rising), transferred to the senior school with Mr Birkett. Becomes the Carters’ butler when Simnet marries and goes to work for Dr Joram.

70 Birketts – Mr Birkett, first seen in High Rising as headmaster at Southbridge retires in Private Enterprise to be succeeded by Everard Carter.

the Land of Lost Content – “That is the land of lost content,/I see it shining plain,/ The happy highways where I went/And cannot come again.” A. E. Housman, A Shropshire Lad XL.

Chapter 3

71 Young WoodleysYoung Woodley was a controversial play by John Van Druten (1901-1957) written in 1925. Roger Woodley, a sensitive boy, falls for his housemaster’s wife who is trapped in a loveless marriage and reciprocates. Also Summer Half, Love Among The Ruins.

to Mr Carter’s disappointment – He was disappointed as well in Summer Half.

a chameleon in his desk – Relusions occur in Summer Half, where Percy Hacker is a shy student in the Classical Sixth; in Cheerfulness Breaks In where he is “a certainty for the Craven and the Hertford”, prizes which were won by Angela Thirkell’s father when at Balliol; in Private Enterprise becoming a Fellow after spending the war at the Ministry of Information; and by Happy Returns he is Professor of Latin at Redbrick University.

Redbrick universities – the name given to the nine civic universities founded in major industrial cities in the 19th century, Birmingham being the first.

wet towels – as Sydney Carton demonstrated in Charles Dickens’s A Tale of Two Cities, to assist the thought-processes: “Steeping the towels in the water and partially wringing them out, he folded them on his head in a manner hideous to behold.” In Summer Half the senior boys use running shorts dampened with ‘punch’ made from lemonade powder mixed with Eno’s fruit salts. In Jutland Cottage Mr Wickham puts a wet towel round his head when dealing with estate accounts.

72 Edward Crofts – Ex-colonel in Indian Army, became a priest on his retirement. Becomes vicar of Southbridge and marries Effie Arbuthnot in Private Enterprise.

Matron – This enduring Power is introduced in Summer Half. It’s improbable that she is the same as the Matron of the prep school who has already had 30 years’ service in Demon in the House. Her name is Poppy Dudley; she began training at Knight’s Hospital with Sister Chiffinch but did not complete the course (County Chronicle). So should by now be contemplating retirement.

73 warning by … fall – “‘Farewell’ she said, ‘ye maidens all/And shun the fault I fell in;/Henceforth take warning by the fall/Of cruel Barbara Allen.’” (traditional ballad).

knickerbockered – It is likely that Angela Thirkell is somewhat old-fashioned in her vocabulary for short trousers. In Demon in the House (1934) Tony ‘now had trousers instead of knickerbockers in term time’ and the boys wear shorts for boxing. So I presume this word migrated from purely games wear to mean a leisure garment, then to boys’ short school trousers. The tomboys Nancy and Peggy in Arthur Ransome’s Swallows and Amazons (1930) wear ‘blue knickers’.

Sparks – The nickname of any wireless operator on board ship, first cited in 1914. Later applied to any electrician. In County Chronicle Matron’s nephew Empson, who served in the Merchant Navy, is married with a child, Marconic Sparks.

Madame Koska – See below, page 234.

74 Miss Hampton and Miss Bent…not exactly her style – Margot and her family get on well with these two ladies and in Jutland Cottage they are very kind to Margot. Perhaps the implication is that she is not at ease with their lesbianism?

those two Dean boys – one is certainly the son of Margaret (Tebben) and Laurence Dean, and is in his last term at the Priory School in The Duke’s Daughter. Is the second his younger brother?

Hicky Heinz – despite his youthful fame we hear no more about this film-star.

75 linen is quite a faux pas nowadays – Matron doesn’t mean a breach of manners, but this is typical of her way of talking. Another example, in Private Enterprise, is ‘What the dirt was is hardly feasible.’

Bostock and Plummer’s – ‘Barchester’s old-established drapers who got models [of clothes] down from London when they were just not quite up to date.’

76 she had her brights to do – Anything which needed polishing with metal polish. Contrasted with ‘the roughs’ by the Arbuthnots’ Mrs Dingle in Private Enterprise.

a green baize door – demarcating the servants’ quarters.

Sir Robert Fielding – the Chancellor of the diocese of Barchester, overseeing legal issues across the diocese especially relating to use of and alterations to church buildings and land.

Robert Keith – elder son of Mr and Mrs Henry Keith, elder brother of Kate, Colin and Lydia. Takes over the family firm of solicitors when his father dies (Cheerfulness Breaks In). Three children, eldest of whom (Henry) is five in Summer Half and has now joined his father in the firm.

a rather second-rate firm of the name of Stringer – Although The Last Chronicle of Barset is referenced, Trollope’s Stringers have nothing do with upholding the law. Dan Stringer is the landlord of ‘The Dragon of Wantley’ and he and his brother are suspected of stealing the cheque which Josiah Crawley (as above, page 23) is suspected of taking. Appropriate that their descendant should be associated with the Palace!

77 none were for a party… and all were for the State – a reference to the Coalition Government of WWII in contrast to what Angela Thirkell regarded as the disastrous post-war Labour government:

“Then none was for a party/Then all were for the state;/Then the great man helped the poor,/And the poor man loved the great.” Lord Macaulay, ‘Horatius’.

Modern English UsageA Dictionary of Modern English Usage by H. W. Fowler (1926) is a style guide. Angela Thirkell is using the expression satirically here, as elsewhere, to point out the ‘modern’ English of vulgar people.

78 The Warings – Sir Cecil inherits Beliers Priory. Marries Lady Glencora (Cora) Palliser in The Duke’s Daughter.

grant-in-aid – strictly speaking this is government money to assist in achieving the objectives of an organisation, so has a comical effect in relation to Mrs Macfadyen’s finances.

unconscionable time a-doing – pun on “He had been, he said, an unconscionable time a-dying, but he hoped they would excuse it” : Charles II according to Lord Macaulay.

Annals of the Parish – again a comically dignified way of referring to gossip: the title of the 1821 novel of Scottish rural life by John Galt. Also see The Old Bank House and Colin’s comment about Edna’s and Doris’s encounter with the Bishop.

faits divers – miscellaneous facts, brief stories in French newspapers.

owing to her insistence – Margot had engaged a petty officer’s widow as housekeeper for her parents (What Did It Mean) but either this person is a replacement or Angela Thirkell forgot the detail.

the smalls – underwear.

one to wash the other so to speak – comic use of this expression for irons! “The one to wash the other” is a proverbial expression. See also The Duke’s Daughter.

80 goffering iron – an appliance to iron fabric that has to be curved, as with frills. It was a hollow metal cylinder into which a rod heated straight from the stove was inserted. In Beatrix Potter’s Mrs Tiggywinkle she “ironed and goffered it and shook out the frills.” See also The Brandons in which Aunt Sissie wears “white bonnets…frilled, plaited and goffered.”

Admiral Benbow – John Benbow (1653-1702), long-serving naval officer and folk-song hero.

81 polythene – Hitherto Angela Thirkell has been disparaging of “horrible plastics” (Private Enterprise) but if these are enchanting she must be getting used to them. Early colours were dainty, hence pale blue and pale pink here, but later became more assertive.

orlon – Orlon was DuPont’s trade name for an acrylic fibre now discontinued. it was delightfully soft but alas melted when ironed.

Richard Hannay’s wife – in John Buchan’s novel Mr Standfast Hannay’s colleague Blenkiron says of Mary Lamington, not yet Hannay’s wife, “She can’t scare and she can’t soil. She’s white-hot youth and innocence.” In County Chronicle these words are attributed to Hannay himself and in The Duke’s Daughter to Blenkinsop [sic].

H. W. Fowler – see comment for page 77 above.

82 Donald had no near relations – Though ackcherly Mr Macfadyen had “a perpetual trickle of letters from aunts, uncles and cousins of every degree” asking for pecuniary help (Happy Returns).

Westward, the land may be bright – Poem ‘Say not the struggle naught availeth’ by Arthur Hugh Clough (1819-1861): “And not by eastern windows only,/When daylight comes, comes in the light,/In front the sun climbs slow, how slowly,/But westward, look, the land is bright.”

83 Wiple Terrace – the “little Terrace of four two-storied cottages in mellow red-brick” (Cheerfulness Breaks In), now occupied by Miss Hampton and Miss Bent (Adelina), Mr Feeder (Louisa), Mr Traill (Maria) and Mr Feeder’s mother (Editha).

still speaks proper Latin – In 1900 the Classical Association proposed changes in pronunciation which were accepted by the Board of Education in 1907. A major change was the pronunciation of V as W: so that in 1066 And All That Julius Caesar’s claim “Veni, Vidi, Vici” [I came, I saw, I conquered} is said by the authors Sellar and Yeatman to have been pronounced “Weeny, weedy and weaky” thus causing the Britons to lose heart. In The Headmistress Mr Carton says that Miss Sparling probably pronounces Cicero as Kikero.

84 golden-voiced announcer – Angela Thirkell’s favourite hate-expression for the BBC’s employees. See for example A Double Affair: “Owain Gryffudd the Welsh miner poet – minah, of course, not minah, said the golden-voiced announcer.” She would have been in a tiny minority, as most people regarded the wireless as a lifeline during the war and as much-needed news and entertainment thereafter.

fons et orrigo – source and origin.

85 those behind cried Forward and those in front cried Back – Lord Macaulay’s poem ‘Horatius’.

teste…– on the evidence of… Ablative of ‘testis’, a witness.

lost sheep providentially returned to the fold – Bible, St Matthew chapter 18 verses 10-14.

88 Wamber – In Sir Walter Scott’s novel Ivanhoe Wamba is the jester of Ivanhoe’s father. Also Love at All Ages: “Fred Wamber… christened his first child Zernebok, a name which Lord Pomfret remembered in Ivanhoe”.

Gurth – In Ivanhoe Gurth is a swineherd.

a film of Ivanhoe – A silent film was made in 1913: it can be seen on YouTube.

about three thousand supers – supernumeraries, extras: ie non-speaking parts.

Tring, Wing and Ivanhoe – There is indeed a rhyme similar to Mr Carter’s version, but the third name is Ivinghoe: they are all places in Buckinghamshire: “Tring, Wing and Ivinghoe/Hampden did forego/For striking of a blow/Right glad to escape so” which Scott wrote that he used this as his inspiration. It purportedly remembers how an ancestor of John Hampden struck the Black Prince in a quarrel over tennis and had to yield some of his manors as a punishment.

Another rhyme reads: “Tring, Wing and Ivinghoe/Three dirty villages all in a row/And never without a rogue or two./Would you know the reason why? Leighton Buzzard is hard by.”

89 Piddinghoe – Yes, it is in Sussex, on the River Ouse.

Demned nonsense – Two Dickens characters seem to be conflated here. Mr Mantalini (in Nicholas Nickleby) often prefaces a word with “demnition” or “demmed”. But Edmund Sparkler (in Little Dorrit) praises women as “having no biggod nonsense” about them. Angela Thirkell uses the latter frequently: see The Brandons, Love Among The Ruins, page 179, A Double Affair, (where the expression is ascribed to Fascination Fledgeby in Our Mutual Friend).

far is as far does – a variant of ‘handsome is as handsome does’. Clearly Mr Wickham was thinking of somewhere a good distance from Southbridge and might also like having Margot near to where he lives.

a nod’s as good as a wink to a blind horse – See also page 62.

90 Spurlos versenkt – German for ‘sunk without trace’, an expression from World War I which Angela Thirkell uses quite frequently.

91 creep – Eileen’s pronunciation of the material crepe (spelt crape by Angela Thirkell on page 67). Rather like Hettie’s voyle in The Brandons.

92 whiskeys – a purist would correct this to whisky/whiskies as we are sure Mr Wickham would usually drink Scotch.

Greek wine… resin and methyated spirits – something of a slander on retsina.

Samian wine – true Samian wine would be a sweet muscatel from the island of Samos.

93 Lord Byron – He did indeed write “Dash down yon cup of Samian wine” in his poem ‘The Isles of Greece’, chiding the Greeks for not instantly rising against Turkish rule rather than criticising their vinification.

verify your references – Martin Routh (1755-1854) was a classical scholar and President of Magdalen College Oxford from 1791 to his death. Asked by a friend what advice he would give a young don he replied “Always verify your references, Sir!” A Relusion frequently used by Angela Thirkell but not always followed.

94 an Ancient Mariner’s eye – In Coleridge’s poem ‘The Rime of the Ancient Mariner’ he fixes an unfortunate wedding guest with his “glittering eye” so that he can’t move until the Mariner’s story is told.

didn’t bury him at four crossroads with a stake through his inside – Suicides could not be buried in consecrated ground until an Act of 1823 permitted private burial at night with no service.

95 Miss Weston’s Home for Seamen – Agnes Weston (1840-1918) established Sailors’ Rests in dockyard towns to keep the men out of pubs. They were affectionately known as “Aggie’s” by generations of seamen.

Mrs Pardiggle – A friend of Mrs Jellaby in Dickens’s Bleak House. Instead of wasting her charitable efforts abroad like Mrs Jellaby (see note to page 5 above) she concentrates on the poor at home, but only to make herself look good.

Lady Bountiful – A character in George Farquhar’s play The Beaux’ Stratagem (1708), noted for her kindness and generosity. Often used in disparagement nowadays.

Victoria League – An organisation founded in 1901 to promote closer union between the countries of the British Commonwealth and still in existence, now focusing on student welfare. Mainly run by women in its early days, so ideal for Lady Norton. Kipling became its Vice-President in 1908; in her biography Angela Thirkell: a writer’s life Anne Hall quotes a 1933 letter of his: “I go in panic dread of her [Angela Thirkell] descending upon Bateman’s and telling me …how the Victoria League should be run.”

96 sightless eye – During the Battle of Copenhagen (1807) the British naval commander signalled that action was to be discontinued. Nelson is reported to have put his telescope to his blind eye, saying “I have a right to be blind sometimes. I really do not see a signal” and continued fighting.

tropically speaking – figuratively speaking. Angela Thirkell uses this expression deliberately to bring the reader up short, a trope being a metaphor. Also Happy Returns.

Lloyd George peer – In 1922 a scandal broke over Lloyd George’s Resignation Honours List: it was alleged that he was raising party funds by charging for peerages. As Lord Norton was a baron, he may have forked out £40,000!

happy few – “We few, we happy few, we band of brothers”: Shakespeare, Henry V, Act 4 scene 3.

97 a mare’s nest – believing you have found something, which actually does not exist.

98 lose the childlike in the larger mind – the Tennyson poem is The Princess: a Medley part VII, the passage appearing near the end: “Yet in the long years liker must they grow;/The man be more of woman, she of man;/He gain in sweetness and in moral height…/She mental breadth, nor fail in childward care,/Nor lose the childlike in the larger mind.”

the metrical psalms – The Psalms rendered into vernacular poetry to be sung as hymns, especially in Scottish Presbyterian churches. such as the Old Hundredth (“All people that on earth do dwell”) and the 23rd psalm.

99 nearly threw the sops all in the sexton’s face – Yes, it is Shakespeare: The Taming of the Shrew Act 3 scene 2: at his wedding Petruchio “quaffed off the muscadel/And threw the sops all in the sexton’s face.”

100 Noel had been silly…– See Private Enterprise

smite his breast – a Biblical image indicating contrition, e.g. St Luke chapter 23 verse 48.

in strophe and antistrophe – The two parts of the chorus in a Greek tragedy, one moving from right to left on the stage in the strophe, the second moving from left to right. This is explained in August Folly by Mrs Palmer. Also Northbridge Rectory, Miss Bunting, County Chronicle, The Duke’s Daughter, Jutland Cottage.

102 emotion recollected in tranquillity – “Poetry … takes its origin from emotion recollected in tranquillity”: Wordsworth, Preface to Lyrical Ballads.

103 Mr Wickham did good by stealth and would blush like anything to find it shame – See note for page 43 above for the correct quotation from Alexander Pope!

Love … will find out the way – “Under floods that are deepest,/Which Neptune obey,/Over rocks that are steepest,/Love will find out the way.” (Anonymous)

105 no accounting for tastes – nor indeed for colours – When it comes to tastes or colours there can be no disputing. A pedantic digression indeed.

Dr BrewerA Dictionary of Phrase and Fable by E. C. Brewer, first published 1870, still invaluable.

LarousseDictionnaire Encyclopédique first published 1856. My edition is 1980 and still has the pink pages of ‘Latin, Greek and foreign sayings’ and ‘proverbs’.

106 “I remember getting a clutch or a setting or something from you in the war” – in Jutland Cottage Canon Fewling takes Margot to visit Mrs Villars and Mrs Villars gives her some hand-cream.

107 lest all should think that he was proud – see above, page 23.

109 do a play by Sartre in the church – Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980), French playwright, novelist and philosopher represents avant-garde art and literature, properly despised by Barsetshire folk.

110 it is a far far better place that you are going to – “It is a far, far better thing that I do than I have ever done; it is a far, far better rest that I go to, than I have ever known”: Sydney Carton in his farewell letter in Dickens’s A Tale of Two Cities.

111 Happy Families – a rather tenuous link with the dialogue of players of this card game, e.g. “Have you got Mr Bun the Baker?” “No, but have you got Mr Chips the Carpenter?”

the children can swim quite well – As the Carter children are now 18, 16 and 14 they ought to be able to!

they say the boys need psychic treatment – or more probably psychiatric?

112 Billy Graham – American evangelist (1918-2018) who held huge rallies called Crusades in many countries, including Britain in 1956.

as the fierce vexation of a dream – “And think no more of this night’s accidents/But as the fierce vexation of a dream”: Shakespeare, A Midsummer Night’s Dream Act 4 scene 1.

St Ewold – Presumably invented by Trollope. In Peace Breaks Out we are told that he cut down the Druids’ sacred oak grove on Bolder’s Knob. There is a St-Avold in north-east France and a St Ewold’s Care Home on Jersey.

114 A.R.P. – Air Raid Precautions. Organisation of the civilian population to enforce the blackout as protection against enemy bombing (see Cheerfulness Breaks In passim). Later changed to Civil Defence to reflect the wider range of activities required.

back in my mud hovel – in the Brothers Grimm’s folk tale The Fisherman and his Wife the poor fisherman catches a magic fish which he releases in return for wishes to be granted. The wife wishes for a cottage, then makes more and more demands until the fish sends them back to their original hovel. Also The Headmistress, The Old Bank House, County Chronicle.

115 The person who asks and it is given unto them – St Matthew’s Gospel chapter 7 verse 7: “Ask, and it shall be given you.”

I think it is more blessed to receive than to give – Acts of the Apostles chapter 20 verse 35: “Remember the words of the Lord Jesus when he said, It is more blessed to give than to receive.”

casuistry – the use of clever but unsound reasoning, especially in relation to moral questions.

Chapter 4

116 every day’s most quiet needs by sun and candlelight – Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Sonnet 43, which begins “How do I love thee? Let me count the ways.”: “I love thee, to the level of every day’s/Most quiet need, by sun and candlelight”. Also The Brandons, Happy Returns, Never Too Late.

trivium and quadrivium – In mediaeval universities the Trivium comprised the three subjects that were taught first: grammar, logic and rhetoric. The Quadrivium followed: geometry, arithmetic, astronomy and music.

117 “Je pense, donc je suis” was French philosopher René Descartes (1596-1650) in Discours sur la Méthode: I think, therefore I am. “Je suis, donc le monde existe” is Angela Thirkell, meaning I am, therefore the world exists.

barony continuing in the male line – If Grace does not have a boy, would the title go to the eldest daughter? Expert advice needed here.

118 rendered unto the goat-pen… – “Render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar’s and unto God the things that are God’s.” St Matthew chapter 22 verse 21.

119 the judge in the Gospel – St Luke chapter 18: “There was … a judge which feared not God, neither regarded man” who was asked by a widow to help her. At first he refused, but then agreed in order to get some peace. The parable is to illustrate that one should not give up. It is returned to, though not named, in the final scene of the book, page 284.

120 arted up – see note on page 19 above.

Clive of India – Robert Clive (1725-1774), first British Governor of Bengal and considered to be the founder of the British Indian Empire. Arcot House (Beltons), Plassey House (Perrys) and Madras Cottages were called after his victories. Dowlah Cottage (Freddy Beltons) is named for Suraj ul Dowlah whose army was defeated at Plassey.

124 strong benevolence of soul – a favourite Relusion: “One, driven by strong benevolence of soul/Shall fly, like Oglethorpe, from pole to pole.” (Alexander Pope, Imitation of Horace). Also applied to Mr Wickham on page 65. Kate is described as having ‘universal benevolence of soul’ in Private Enterprise and in Jutland Cottage is ‘driven by strong benevolence…’ with the quotation being ascribed to Dr Johnson. In Never Too Late it is Lydia who possesses the strong benevolence, correctly attributed.

125 that was where their toes turned in – a childish expression rather than a quotation, we think. It also appears in August Folly and Love Among The Ruins.

126 looking like the morning after the night before – expression dating back to the late 19th century and meaning having a hangover.

spliced the mainbrace – Up to 1970 sailors in the Royal Navy were issued with a measure of rum every day. On very special occasions the order was given to ‘Splice the Mainbrace!’ and an extra tot was served out.

I was in the Navy for a bit of the ’14 war – Wicks’s naval service is rather confusing: we know he served in WWI and was then called up again. In Private Enterprise he is said to have been invalided out after Dunkirk, but in County Chronicle he was present at the Allied landings in Italy.

never saw a chap give a penny to a blind beggar … – Mr Wickham varies this: in Jutland Cottage it is a case of helping the blind beggar across the road. Thomas Moore’s oriental romance Lalla Rookh (1817) has “I never nurs’d a dear gazelle/To glad me with its soft black eye,/But when it came to know me well/And love me, it was sure to die!” This is presumably how Dickens’s Dick Swiveller came to say “I never nursed a dear Gazelle…but when it came to know me well and love me it was sure to marry a market-gardener” (The Old Curiosity Shop).

bodgers – As someone who lives close to the Chiltern Hills I get cross with Angela Thirkell’s misuse of this word! Mr Wickham has it right in Happy Returns when he says “they were the fellows that rough out the wood for chair legs…”. Bodgers worked in the Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire beech woods, camping out in clearingsm cutting and shaping the chair legs which were then sent to furniture factories in High Wycombe. They were not gypsies (Love Among The Ruins) and didn’t live in caravans. Angela Thirkell should have come across the specialised use of the word when she lived in Beaconsfield during the war. Alison Uttley, who lived in the town from 1938 to 1976, describes visiting a bodgers’ workplace in her book on Buckinghamshire (1950).

rose to top sawyer – When large logs had to be cut in a saw-pit using a two-handed saw, the bottom sawyer got all the sawdust, so Top Sawyer was much the better job. Rather obscurely, Caxton calls Jane Crawley a top sawyer in A Double Affair.

By Nelson and Bronte – Captain Hornby uses the same expression in The Headmistress. In 1799 Lord Nelson was given the title Duke of Bronte by the King of Naples. It is said that Patrick Brunty, father of the Bronte sisters, changed his name in emulation.

129 “I’m not a drinker” – On page 231 Mr Welk “had only got to his sixth beer”!

130 Funeral Pumps – Pompes Funèbres, ie funeral directors, undertakers.

Like Maud, he took the hint sedately – From Tennyson’s poem ‘Maud’: “I kissed her slender hand,/She took the kiss sedately;/Maud is not seventeen,/But she is tall and stately.”

The Flag of England – possibly a reference to Kipling’s poem ‘The English Flag’: “Never was isle so little, never was sea so lone,/But over the scud and the palm-trees an English flag was flown.”

Christmas in Trincomalee – repeated from Cheerfulness Breaks In. A city in the north of Sri Lanka with a harbour of great strategic importance; until 1957 a base for the British Navy.

Khansamah – cook, male servant.

Flinders – town in Victoria, Australia. The Royal Australian Navy operates a gunnery on a headland. Perhaps HMS Gridiron and HMS Andiron were on a goodwill visit there.

132 Dr Crawley’s godson – In Happy Returns Mrs Parkinson asks Mrs Crawley if the Dean would mind the expected baby being called after him. (Mavis seems to have forgotten this when the baby arrives and it’s Mrs Joram who suggests Josiah.)

133 a lay-in – Very non-U!

take the goods the gods provided – John Dryden, ‘Alexander’s Feast’: “Take the goods the gods provide thee”, translation of “habeas quod di dant boni”, you may keep what good the gods give.

134 Tartarin – Alphonse Daudet novel Tartarin de Tarascon 1872. When Tartarin returns from hunting the Rhone stevedores murmur “He’s got double muscles!” Mrs Halliday uses the Relusion in Peace Breaks Out.

tendon Achilles – the Achilles tendon links the calf muscles to the heelbone.

135 the Scarlet Woman – The Roman Catholic Church: from the Bible, Revelation chapter 17. Father Fewling is very High Church in Northbridge Rectory but has become much more Moderate in Greshamsbury (Jutland Cottage)

they would say they had thoroughly enjoyed it – unusual malice by Mrs Macfadyen and one of the few direct comments on non-U expressions.

137 [Canon Fewling] didn’t know [the Parkinsons] much – he has had quite a bit to do with them, but there will always be a gulf between the Parkinsons and the Canon’s social circle. And on page 42 Mrs Parkinson and her husband knew Canon Fewling “as well as they would allow themselves to do.”

Tozers’ – The first reference to a Tozer being an undertaker as we associate the name with Scatcherd and Tozer the top-class catering firm. In Trollope’s Framley Parsonage the Tozer brothers are money-lenders.

Lord Aberfordbury – Mr McFadyen worsted ‘that unpopular peer’ in What Did It Mean.

138 rapid debasement in the value of money – Prices in 1957 were 1.42 times the average of those in 1950.

vicious spiral – an expression first used in 1940.

140 Young Turks – Originally Young Turks was a political reform movement wanting to abolish the autocratic rule of the Ottoman Empire, but came to mean any group wanting to change the status quo. Mrs Hicks is rather using it to mean unmanageable youngsters: as in Hilaire Belloc’s Cautionary Verses: “For instance, if his mother said/”Lundy! It’s time to go to Bed!”/He bellowed like a little Turk.”

an Ancient Mariner’s eye – see page 94.

142 the coldness of her entertainments – Lady Norton had been Lady in Waiting to Queen Alexandra and so ‘was impervious to every kind of discomfort.’ (The Old Bank House)

strong in her own virtue – this has proved tricky to pin down. In A Double Affair we have ‘She then went back to the kitchen, wrapped (more or less in Horace’s beautiful words) in her own virtue.’ In Enter Sir Robert there is “If your own private world crumbles…you involve yourself in your own virtue… and try to bear up impavidly among its ruins”. “Impavidly” recalls the Ode which Lydia has to translate in Summer Half.

Borrioboola Gha – see page 5.

adscriptus glebae – see page 63.

Thermocontactic Brasierette – Angela Thirkell enjoying parodying pretentious trade names, with a hint of vulgarity in the near-pun on brassiere.

the dog days – hot weather when Sirius the Dog Star rises with the sun.

Mr Krook – in Charles Dickens’s Bleak House.

143 Happy the family that has no history – ‘Happy is the country that has no history’ is attributed by Carlyle to Montesquieu (1689-1755). In The Mill on the Floss George Eliot writes ‘The happiest women, like the happiest nations, have no history.’

144 Crotona – Plenty of scope for Angela Thirkell to make up names of cars, though what this parodies is not clear. See The Duke’s Daughter, Jutland Cottage, A Double Affair, Love Among The Ruins. The Grand Prix for car names however must be given to Lord Aberfordbury’s very expensive Cascara Sagrada which he ran into the sewage works in Love at All Ages: Cascara sagrada is a laxative.

the Umblebys’ children – are certainly a great deal older than Mrs Parkinson’s as the Umblebys have several grandchildren (page 12).

when he got the invite – This word rather than invitation is obviously chosen to show Mavis’s non-U speech. It actually has a very long pedigree, the OED’s first citation being 1659. And of course is practically de rigueur in present-day Britain.

145 The Three Sillies – This tale doesn’t appear in Grimm’s Household Tales but in Joseph Jacobs’s English Fairy Tales (1890). Eleanor Grantly knows them by heart and tells several to the Pomfret children in The Old Bank House. Robin Dale alludes to this story in Private Enterprise.

146 a Lambeth doctorate – A Lambeth degree is conferred by the Archbishop of Canterbury and is either Oxford- or Cambridge-based depending on the Archbishop at the time. Canon Fewling becomes a Doctor of Divinity in A Double Affair; when Bishop Joram receives his DD he is glad that the then Archbishop is an Oxford man (County Chronicle).

147 the English Hymnal – first published 1906 for the Church of England, one of the editors being Ralph Vaughan Williams. Many preferred to stick to Hymns Ancient and Modern, first published 1861.

Lord Burleigh’s nod – From Sheridan’s play The Critic (1779). In the play-within-a-play the character Lord Burleigh ‘shakes his head and exits’. The playwright gives a long and complicated explanation of all that is meant by the gesture. Rather over-used by Angela Thirkell considering its significance: Happy Returns, Enter Sir Robert, A Double Affair, Love at All Ages (three times).

148 Nebuchadnezzar the King of the Jews,/Sold his wife for a pair of shoes;/ When the shoes began to wear/Nebuchadnezzar began to swear;/When the shoes got worse and worse/Nebuchadnezzar began to curse;/When the shoes were quite worn out/Nebuchadnezzar began to shout.

Ish-basheth – Neither the Dean nor Margot has got this right: Ish-bosheth (Old Testament spelling) was a son of Saul who reigned briefly over Israel. His army fought a battle at Helkath-hazzurim but he was not killed there (II Samuel chapter 2 verse 16). He was killed later in his house as he lay in his bed at noon. Mephibosheth was the grandson of Saul (II Samuel 4).

Them … widening Barley Street – this has been proposed for years, certainly since A Double Affair. “Them” usually means the iniquitous Labour government 1945-52 but here just interfering officialdom.

149 a smack in time saved nine – A nice variant of a stitch in time. Smacking children is seen as perfectly acceptable, indeed necessary, at this date. In D. L, Sayers’s Busman’s Honeymoon (1936) the Dowager Duchess wonders ‘whether Mussolini’s mother spanked him too much or too little – you never know, these psychological days.’

skelp – Scots for ‘whip’

whipping apprentices – Elizabeth Brownrigg, b.1720, was a respected midwife who was given custody of some female children from the Foundling Hospital as domestic servants. She treated them appallingly, stripping them, chaining them in the cellar and whipping them. After one, Mary Clifford aged 14, escaped but died of infected wounds Brownrigg was charged with murder and hanged at Tyburn in 1760.

150 Harold – As we know it is Josiah who is the Crawleys’ protégé: Harold and Connie were born before the Parkinsons came to Pomfret Madrigal.

Mrs Paxon – ‘There was not a pie in Northbridge in which Mrs Paxon had not one of her very capable fingers’ (Northbridge Rectory). Also What Did It Mean.

151 doll with a yellow wig – See Cheerfulness Breaks In

153 twisted her fingers like barley-sugar – When I was a child we had beautiful orange sticks of barley sugar with a spiral twist all the way up. We were given a stick to ward off car-sickness on long journeys: the end could be sucked into a sharp point to be poked into a younger brother.

154 Frank Churchill – A self-important young man in Jane Austen’s Emma who is secretly engaged to Jane Fairfax. In this incident it is Emma who is playing and singing – always verify your references!

Kipling’s poem – ‘Jane’s Marriage’: “Jane went to Paradise:/That was only fair./Good Sir Walter met her first/And led her up the stair./Henry and Tobias,/And Miguel of Spain,/Stood with Shakespeare at the top/To welcome Jane.”

155 The Ultra-Phallic Group – Every right-minded inhabitant of Barsetshire has the same disdain for modern art as he or she has for modern drama. The neophallic designs on the ceiling of the Wigwam night-club are mentioned in Love Among The Ruins and Julian Rivers belongs to the Set of Five (Pomfret Towers).

Chapter 5

157 short, brutish and nasty – Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), Leviathan: “The life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short.”

Mewlinwillinwodd – In Dickens’s Bleak House Mrs Woodcourt recites verses from the Mewlinwillinwodd, evidently similar to the Mabinogion. See Northbridge Rectory where Captain Powell-Jones thinks “but poorly of a place where no-one had probably heard of Morgan ap Kerrig or Crumlinwallinwer or Mewlinwillinwodd. Later Angela Thirkell uses these for place-names: see Private Enterprise, Cheerfulness Breaks In, What Did It Mean, The Old Bank House.

158 igloos – would have been warmed by seal-oil lamps, not paraffin.

159 Wheeler – Originally nurse to the Belton children, refused to use her forename of Sarah (The Headmistress). See also page 177.

160 rather like Cranford – Elizabeth Gaskell’s novel Cranford (1851) depicts life in a small town dominated by genteel ladies (nearly all single) struggling to keep up appearances while practising “elegant economy”. So not very like Harefield!

161 the ladies had to have a rere-tea – see note for page 15.

162 Fluvius Minucius – fictional Roman writer, also studied by Canon Horbury and his granddaughter Miss Sparling who becomes Mrs Carton in The Headmistress. See also page 167 which refers to the failure of Mr Oriel to return a book by Fluvius Minucius to Canon Horbury.

his great-great-uncle Oriel who married one of old Squire Gresham’s daughters – on page 14 Mr Umbleby, who knows all about these things, says it was Mr Oriel’s great-uncle.

les donneurs de serénades [sic] – Paul Verlaine poem ‘Mandoline’: “Les donneurs de sérénades/Et les belles écouteuses/Echangent des propos fades/Sous les ramures chanteuses.” (The singers of serenades and the beautiful listeners exchange insipid remarks beneath the singing branches.)

Mr Oriel’s maid – Dorothy, the slave of Mrs Powlett, who first appears in The Headmistress.

glanders – infectious disease of horses.

164 ground her bones to make their bread – the giant’s threat in Jack and the Beanstalk: “Be he alive or be he dead/I’ll grind his bones to make my bread.”

165 bodgers – see rant for page 127!

166 Mr F’s aunt – Mr Finching’s aunt in Dickens’s Little Dorrit, who is noted for her non-sequiturs. “When we lived at Hendon Barnes’s gander was stole by tinkers” is the version Angela Thirkell uses in Love Among The Ruins and Love at All Ages, but it pains me to report that in all instances ‘Hendon’ should read ‘Henley’. Also The Duke’s Daughter and Happy Returns.

167 Fluvius Minucius – see note for page 162.

Songs Without WordsLieder ohne Worte, short lyrical piano pieces by Mendelssohn.

168 ‘The Lost Chord’ – Poem by Adelaide Anne Proctor (1825-1865) set to music by Arthur Sullivan.

169 early penny of Queen Victoria’s reign – usually known as a ‘bun penny’ because of the hairstyle. Also What Did It Mean.

Treasure Trove – Valuable ancient artefacts whose owner cannot be identified and are thus declared the property of the Crown.

172 I was at Rugby and King’s – In The Duke’s Daughter Mr Belton had been at Brasenose College Oxford.

Andrew Fairservice – A gardener in Sir Walter Scott’s Rob Roy who becomes the servant of the narrator Frank Osbaldistone. The passage is also quoted (by Mr Macpherson) in Peace Breaks Out.

173 The Picture of Dorian Gray – 1890 novel by Oscar Wilde, described as having “a strong flavour of the elegantly perverse.”

A Group of Noble Dames – collection of short stories by Thomas Hardy, 1891, showing a very cynical view of men and women. Also Love at All Ages where Lavinia Merton is told not to read the book.

174 roof-spotting – See Northbridge Rectory, Chapter 3.

175 like Man Friday – In Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe Man Friday explains his religion: “All things say O [to their god]”. Many other references, in Peace Breaks Out, Jutland Cottage, Enter Sir Robert, A Double Affair.

176 Doric – a rustic dialect in the north of England and in Scotland.

through caverns measureless to man – Coleridge’s poem ‘Kubla Khan’: “Where Alph, the sacred river, ran/Through caverns measureless to man/Down to a sunless sea.”

the waters of Lethe – one of the rivers of the underworld in Greek mythology: when the souls of the dead drank from it they forgot all that they had said and done when alive.

177 ever since the chimney tax – The Chimney (or Hearth) Tax was imposed by Parliament in 1662, at the rate of two shillings a year for each hearth. Repealed in 1689.

178 The Last of the Barons – 1843 novel by Edward Bulwer Lytton showing the overthrow of the hereditary feudal order by the new commercial classes.

They’ve had to let the Towers – See What Did It Mean.

Harefield House let to a girls’ school – See The Headmistress.

agricultural implement that sped the plough – “God speed the plough!” a phrase used in traditional Plough Monday ceremonies (8 January each year), the start of the new agricultural year. Can be found inscribed on old plates, mugs etc.

179 Mr Edmund Sparkler – see note for page 88.

loss of the Birkenhead – In 1852 HMS Birkenhead, carrying soldiers to South Africa, struck a rock off Cape Town. With only enough lifeboats for women and children, the troops were drawn up on deck and stayed in their ranks as the ship went down. See also Love at All Ages.

What would your great-grandfather do… – an almost-complete quotation from the tale of Hildebrand who was frightened of motor cars in Hilaire Belloc’s Cautionary Tales For Children: Mr Belton does not appreciate nonsense.

Lord Burleigh – see note for page 147.

181 bitter bread – “And sighed my English breath in foreign clouds,/Eating the bitter bread of banishment.” : Shakespeare, Richard II Act 3 scene 1.

Julian Rivers – see note for page 155.

182 like the Tiber – Macaulay, ‘Horatius’: “The furious river struggled hard/And tossed his tawny mane/And burst the curb and bounded/Rejoicing to be free.”

184 under your vine and fig-tree – Bible, Micah chapter 4 verse 4: “But they shall sit every man under his vine and under his fig tree.”

185 beef to the ankle – Mr Belton’s son Charles uses the expression “beef to the instep” when describing the Hosiers’ girls in The Headmistress.

barley sugar – see note for page 153.

186 the Barchester Odeon on Saturday mornings – ‘Saturday morning pictures’ were put on by most cinemas in Britain from the 1920s to 1970s. We paid sixpence and were allowed to sit in the one-shilling and one-and-ninepenny seats though notS the posh (half-crown) seats at the back. See also Private Enterprise.

Ane Monstrous Regiment of Children – Several references by Angela Thirkell to The First Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment [rule] of Women by John Knox, 1558. Also Jutland Cottage, Happy Returns, Love at All Ages, The Duke’s Daughter.

Ancient Mariner – Also page 94 and page 139.

187 water coming down at Lodore – A waterfall near Keswick, subject of a poem by Robert Southey, 1820, full of alliteration and assonance.

189 a royal congé – ceremonious dismissal.

carefully weighed and kindly found a little wanting – When the writing on the wall appeared at the feast of Belshazzar, King of Babylon, Daniel interpreted it as reading “Thou art weighed in the balances and art found wanting.” (Bible, Daniel chapter 5 verse 36.

190 a wink is often as good as a nod – used twice before.

191 Muniment Room – Housing records, archives.

mot juste – exactly the right word.

192 she laid low and said nothing – The great historical character referred to is Joel Chandler Harris’s Brer Rabbit: Brer Fox makes a tar baby to catch Brer Rabbit: “Tar-baby ain’t sayin’ nuthin’ and Brer Fox, he lay low.”

King Lear – who “tears his white hair/Which the impetuous blast, with eyeless rage,/Catch in their fury…” (Shakespeare, King Lear Act 3 scene 1)

Chaos and Eternal Night – Milton, Paradise Lost Book 3, line 18: “I sung of Chaos and Eternal Night”.

193 Browning’s Soliloquizing Monk in a Spanish Cloister – Robert Browning, ‘Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister: “If hate killed men, Brother Lawrence,/God’s blood, would mine not kill you!”

194 Protean – Taking on different characteristics, Proteus being Poseidon’s herdsman in Greek myth who could change shape, thus evading capture.

King Lear – who, dispossessed by his two elder daughters, wanders homeless on a heath

the Vicar of Wakefield – eponymous hero of Oliver Goldsmith’s novel, 1776, who loses everything in a house fire and can’t pay his rent, whereupon the evil squire has him thrown in prison.

Marius – Gaius Marius (c.157-86 BCE), defeated general who has been frequently portrayed amid the ruins of Carthage.

the New Zealander among the ruins of St Paul’s – Macaulay, Historical Essays, 1840: “When some traveller from New Zealand shall, in the midst of a vast solitude, take his stand on a broken arch of London Bridge to sketch the ruins of St Paul’s [Cathedral]”.

Armiger – a person entitled to use a coat of arms

195 Johann Maria Farina – an Italian who founded a perfume factory in Cologne and created eau-de-cologne. The company is still a family firm producing bottles with his curly signature on the label.

196 when I have to go through the ropes – an odd way of referring to dying. The reference is presumably to the boxing-ring.

Jubilee…Battle of Waterloo… Sebastopol – 1887, 1815, 1854 respectively!

197 they forgot to put the skid on the wheel – a device put on the front of the wheel of a cart or carriage to slow its speed when descending a hill, also known as a drag, which Angela Thirkell mentions in Three Houses.

198 There breathes not the man, no nor woman neither, even if by your smiling you seem to say so – a mixture of Scott’s The Lay of the Last Minstrel (“Breathes there the man, with soul so dead/Who never to himself hath said,/This is my own, my native land!”) and Shakespeare’s Hamlet: “Man delights not me; no, nor woman neither, though by your smiling you seem to say so” (Act 2 scene 2).

piano nobile – the ‘noble floor’, the principal storey of an imposing house.

199 Alexander the Great Julius Caesar and Leonidas,Scipio Africanus, Pompey and George the Second – all war leaders, Dettingen (page 200) being the last battle in which a British monarch led his troops.

200 ‘Lilliburlero’ – popular song composed in 1686 which became associated with the followers of William of Orange against James II. In Tristram Shandy, the novel by Laurence Sterne, the eponymous narrator says “My Uncle Toby would never offer to answer this by any other kind of argument than that of whistling half a dozen bars of Lilliburlero.” Also The Headmistress.

202 pleasing anxious beings – Thomas Gray, Elegy in a Country Churchyard: “For who to dumb forgetfulness a prey/This pleasing anxious being e’er resigned,/Left the warm precincts of the cheerful day,/Nor cast one longing lingering look behind?” Also Marling Hall, The Duke’s Daughter, Happy Returns.

one or two of the best – smacks or strokes of the cane, still seen in 1958 as perfectly OK especially in private schools.

203 fiends angelical – “Beautiful tyrant!Fiend angelical!”: Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet Act 3 scene 3. Also Love Among The Ruins, Happy Returns.

Chapter 6

204 touch of the Doric – see note on page 176

band of brothers – see note on page 94

205 ineluctable – unavoidable

prevented (in the Prayer Book sense) – “Prevent us, O Lord, in all our doings…” (Book of Common Prayer), from Latin praevenire, to go before or guard from Thus, not to stop something happening: so the sentence should read ‘not in the Prayer Book sense’.

207 Lucina – the Roman goddess of childbirth. See also Summer Half, Love Among The Ruins, The Old Bank House.

Kamerad – See note for page 15.

annual Not Forgotten dinner – Founded in 1920, the Not Forgotten Association ‘combats loneliness in the Armed Forces community by offering entertainment and activities to wounded or sick veterans and service personnel.’

George Knox’s wife … when she was Anne Todd – See High Rising.

210 Heir of Redclyffe – 1853 novel by Charlotte M. Yonge, a best-seller. Obviously a favourite of Angela Thirkell’s, as she refers to it several times and uses the heroine’s name, Amabel, for Mrs Marling who despite disliking it Marling Hall) is delighted when it is given to her granddaughter in The Duke’s Daughter. In Little Women (L. M. Alcott) Jo is discovered crying over the story.

a modern novel about what happened to the heroine – A sequel called Amabel and Mary Verena by Mrs Hicks Beach was published in 1944.

211 the cook and the captain bold and the mate of the Nancy brig – In W. S. Gilbert’s The Yarn of the Nancy Bell the narrator is all of these people because, cast ashore on a desert island, he ate them.

212 the Massacre of Cawnpore – A bloody episode in the Indian Mutiny. Colonel Crofts served in India (long after the Mutiny, of course) before retiring and becoming a clergyman. See Private Enterprise.

Are you on the Health? – ie the National Health Service. Why does Margot regard it as undesirable to be treated by a doctor under this system? Should Dr Ford still be practising?

hearthstone was white and clean – an archaic word for a stone forming a hearth; also a soft stone or preparation of powdered stone and clay used to whiten or scour hearths, steps, floors etc.

213 two irons on the stove – Even Mrs Brown, who seems decidedly old-fashioned, only uses flat irons when there’s a breakdown in the electricity (page 79).

a nice scullery with a copper – Mrs Brown may be happy to fill a large metal container with water, light a fire under it, then ladle the hot water into a washtub. No housekeeper such as Margot is looking for would put up with it for a second!

Four colley birds, Three French hens…in a Pear Tree – from the Christmas song The Twelve Days of Christmas.

214 new set of teeth on the Health Service – see comment for page 47.

215 Black-Eyed Susan – “All in the Downs the fleet was moored/The streamers waving in the wind,/When Black-eyed Susan came aboard.”: John Gay ballad ‘Sweet William’s Farewell to Black-Eyed Susan”.

Wemmick and Miss Skiffins – John Wemmick is Mr Jaggers’s chief clerk in Dickens’s Great Expectations who fired a small cannon every night from his cottage. He marries Miss Skiffins.

Gadshill – Dickens’s home in Kent where he lived from 1856 until his death in 1870.

the fires of writers do not live in their ashes – “Even in our ashes live their wonted fires”: Thomas Gray, ‘Elegy in a Country Churchyard.

last, but far from loneliest or loveliest – Rudyard Kipling’s description of Auckland in his poem ‘The Song of the Cities’: “Last, loneliest, loveliest, exquisite, apart -/On us, on us the unswerving season smiles.” See also Charles’s description of Clarissa in Happy Returns.

volte-face – complete change of attitude; U-turn in Modern English Usage.

218 Cedric the Saxon – Father of Ivanhoe in Scott’s novel.

Seedric – Lord Bond (Cedric Wayland) was called Seedric by Matron in August Folly.

the B.B.C. – See comments for page 84.

orrigo/origo – On page 84 Margot hasn’t met the expression. Given Mr Macfadyen’s lack of education (Happy Returns) it is unlikely that he would understand Latin scansion.

220 an awful flapper – was anyone using this expression much after the 1920s?

an ugly duckling – Story by Hans Andersen: the ugly duckling turns into a swan.

222 ‘Connu!’– Best translated as ‘I know!’

223 Mr Oriel … of a considerable age – Yes! In The Headmistress he has been ordained for over forty years and his cook says “No one would ever take him for seventy.”

age comes dropping slow – W. B. Yeats poem ‘The Lake Isle of Innisfree’: “And I shall have some peace there, for peace comes dropping slow,/Dropping from the veils of the morning to where the cricket sings;/There midnight’s all a-glimmer, and noon a purple glow,/And evening full of the linnet’s wings.”

Thinking of the old ‘un – Dickens, David Copperfield: “She’s been thinking of the old ‘un!”(Mr Peggotty on Mrs Gummidge, a self-pitying widow.) Other references including A Double Affair (Mrs Halliday)

224 vaguely thought one still had to give up one’s college fellowship on marriage – Oxford dons were allowed to marry without giving up their fellowships in 1877!

Monstrous Regiment – see note for page 186.

Hamaker Spinney – See Pomfret Towers, where it is called Hamaker’s Spinney. (Is the name influenced by Belloc’s Ha’nacker Mill ?

Fine Old English Gentleman – Song by Henry Russell, 1835.

225 rock, the fortress and the might – The hymn ‘For All the Saints’: “Thou wast their rock, their fortress and their might.” Derived from Psalm 18 verse 2, “The Lord is my rock and my fortress and my deliverer.”

226 villa at Cap Ferrat – See notes for page 20.

Hush him, hush him and not fret him – “Hush ye, hush ye, do not fret ye,/The Black Douglas shall not get thee.” Sir James Douglas (c,1286-1330): his Border raids terrorised the English, and mothers used his name to quell their babies. In The Headmistress Lydia substitutes ‘Old Beast Pettinger’.

bodgers … but guests must be content – yet another reference to Mr Belton’s favourite subject, see note for page 127.

228 graves and worms and epitaphs – “Of comfort no man speak:/Let’s talk of graves, of worms, of epitaphs”: Shakespeare, Richard II Act 3 scene 2.

The half was not told me – Words of the Queen of Sheba on her visit to Solomon. Ackcherly, II Chronicles chapter 9 verse 6 has “Behold, the one half of the greatness of thy wisdom was not told me.” “Behold, the half was not told me” comes in I Kings chapter 10 verse 7: In Happy Returns Swan says to Mr Belton, “I think it is better in Kings than in Chronicles, Sir.”

229 Cruden’s Concordance – Alexander Cruden, Concordance of the King James Bible, first published 1737 and never out of print since.

gilded youth – translation of jeunesse dorée, originally applied to fashionable young men during the French Revolution, first English citation 1882.

first trousers – presumably long trousers, thus putting a boy on a level with adults.

Chapter 7

232 ‘The dead they cannot rise…’ – Rudyard Kipling’s poem ‘Soldier, Soldier’ is a dialogue between a soldier returning from the war and a girl looking for her dead lover. The last two verses read:

“Soldier, soldier, come from the wars,/Oh then I know it’s true, I’ve lost my true love!”/”An’ I tell you truth again – when you’ve lost the feel o’ pain/You’d best take me for your new love.”

True love! New love!/Best take ‘im for a new love,/The dead they cannot rise an’ you’d better dry your eyes/An’ you’d best take ‘im for your new love.”

Also County Chronicle, The Duke’s Daughter.

sad fountains – “Weep you no more, sad fountains”: from verses set to music by John Dowland in the 16th century.

233 victoria, open landau – two types of carriage with a folding top.

Moses on Mount Sinai – rather rude! In Exodus chapter 33 verse 23, God says to Moses: “Thou shalt see my back parts: but my face shall not be seen.”

dwell among her own people – Bible, 2 Kings chapter 4 verse 13, where the Shunammite says “I dwell among my own people.”

234 biblia abiblia – books which are not books. So named by Charles Lamb in his essay Detached Thoughts on Books and Reading “I reckon Court Calendars, Pocket Books… and generally all those volumes ‘which no gentleman’s library should be without.”

235 Listener’s Lure – a 1906 novel by E. V. Lucas. Also mentioned in Enter Sir Robert.

Mixo-Lydian navy – In Miss Bunting Admiral Palliser says that this navy consists of an old Margate paddle-steamer on the River Patsch. In Jutland Cottage also it is an out-of-date gunboat on a lake.

Ackcherly – One of Angela Thirkell’s bugbear expressions. Most notably associated with Betty, niece of Mrs Turner (Northbridge Rectory), though first occurs in The Brandons. “Now used, together with the frequent interjection of Um, in every rank of society” (What Did It Mean). Has now become a kind of password among Thirkellites.

beauty lived with kindness – From the song ‘Who Is Silvia?’ in The Two Gentlemen of Verona, Act 4 scene 2: “Is she kind as she is fair?/For beauty lives with kindness.” Canon Fewling sings the song (set to music by Schubert) to himself as he thinks about Rose (Jutland Cottage). Also see Peace Breaks Out, Love at All Ages.

like Tennyson’s Maud – See note on page 130.

the Mothers’ Union – A Christian organisation founded 1876 by Mary Sumner, a rector’s wife, to bring women of all classes and faiths together to support women as they brought up their children. Angela Thirkell seems to have had a poor opinion of the organisation, or at least of its banners, as in Miss Bunting. A reference to special services for the MU appears above, page 23.

the Townswomen’s Guild – Founded 1929 with the aim of educating women in good citizenship; based on the already flourishing Women’s Institute, but for women in urban areas.

Cedric the Saxon – see note on page 88.

ocarina – a small type of closed flute, of ancient origin. Very easy to play, but also easy to play slightly out of tune which must have delighted Rose’s family. See Cheerfulness Breaks In.

Padella – fictional fashion house. A good name for a designer’s that caters for the larger lady! The Via Abbandonata and the Via Perduta [lost] make it sound difficult to find, or indeed escape from.

demi-toilette – another example of an old-fashioned term: means not full evening dress. Matron appears ‘in a semi-evening dress of beige lace’ on page 73.

239 the Mixo-Lydian Ambassadress – Gradka appears first in Miss Bunting, studying for her English exams. Out of gratitude she establishes the Bunting College in her own country for teaching English. She reappears in Love Among The Ruins and then as ambassadress Gradka Bonescu in County Chronicle.

spade beard – ‘A beard cut to the shape of a spade blade (pointed or squared)’, which would seem to describe most beards except forked!

240 Trois Quartiers – Aux Trois-Quartiers was a department store in Paris which opened in 1829. Had it become downmarket by 1957, which would account for Lady Norton’s being told to go there? Redeveloped as a mall in the 1990s.

241 in petto – literally ‘in the breast’ (Italian), ie in secret.

the Silent Service – see note on page 30.

nominated for a good grammar school – A little previous, as Josiah is now only five, but by Love at All Ages he is doing well at the grammar school.

243 kitchen range – see comments for page 44.

something about it in the Bible – Proverbs chapter 13 verse 24: “He that spareth the rod hateth his son; but he that loveth him chasteneth him betimes.”

Greta and Ernie – See Miss Bunting

244 Gradka’s French – “Heap of pigs!” “I’ve got news for them. We’ve got allies – come on.” “It doesn’t matter whether it’s the Russians or the Turks.” “The one’s as good as the other.”

245 Sly Boots! – crafty person, cheat: dates back at least to 1700.

one wife – In The Duke’s Daughter Gradka says that a priest must have two wives, so that if one dies he will still have the other.

“Czy provka…” As all lovers of Mixo-Lydia know, this means “No, never…” and is the only remark ever heard from M. ‘Gogo’ Brownscu.

From Powder-Monkey to Admiral – is actually the title of a novel by W.H.Kingston (1883). Powder-monkeys were boys who carried gunpowder from the powder magazine to the guns on warships.

Cleopatra – Alfred Lord Tennyson’s poem ‘A Dream of Fair Women’: “A queen with swarthy cheeks and bold black eyes,/Brow-bound with burning gold.”

so that oll can be d’aprés nature – according to nature. Though the accent should be the other way round.

247 the new bino-therapeuticp-conglomerate compass – One of the joys of reading Angela Thirkell is her extremely convincing parodying of technical terms, whether of cars, guns, wireless sets or higher mathematics…

tanked right over her – This expression would appear to be Angela Thirkell’s own invention and it’s very pleasing to see her cited in the Oxford English Dictionary Supplement for “He tanked right over her without so much as noticing her” (Miss Bunting). There are three citations and hers is the only figurative one. Also Marling Hall, The Old Bank House, County Chronicle, The Duke’s Daughter. Also “Juggernauting over Mr Cameron” in Before Lunch.

Arts Neo-Paysans – the new peasant arts. Also Cheerfulness Breaks In.

248 whiskey – Angela Thirkell frequently uses this spelling, which is for the Irish (or American) brands of whisky.

250 The words fell as heavily as Lear’s fivefold Never – Shakespeare, King Lear Act 5 scene 3 when Lear says after the death of Cordelia “Thou’lt come no more,/Never, never, never, never, never”.

254 ten years of years had passed – sounds like a quotation. Also Jutland Cottage.

the ninefold Styx – In Greek and Roman mythology the River Styx (named after the goddess) separated the world of the living from the underworld abode of the dead. It encircled the world nine times. “How fain were they now in upper air to endure their poverty and sore travail! It may not be… Styx pours her ninefold barrier between.” Virgil, Aeneid Book 6, translated by J. W. Mackail.

the dead they cannot rise – see note for page 232.

Chapter 8

255 Mr Keith – See notes for page 76.

Grog – Originally sailors’ ration of rum diluted with water, named after “Old Grog” (Admiral Vernon).

256 Whiskey – Again! Looks particularly incorrect in conjunction with “because he was Scotch”.

Dochandorus – Anglicisation of Gaelic deoch an dorus = a drink at the door. Sometimes further mangled to “Jock and Doris”.

Dagenham Girl Pipers – A group founded in 1930; became professional in 1933. In the 1950s no big carnival or parade, in the South of England at least, was complete without the Girl Pipers.

Heir of Redclyffe – See notes for page 210.

257 Cordelia – Very untypical of Rose to make such a relusion: she must have seen a film! In any case, Cordelia doesn’t have to “haul him about all over the place” as they’re reunited only just before their deaths.

Butter his paws – To help a cat settle in a new house you are supposed to put butter on its paws, the theory being that by the time it has licked them clean, the cat will have got used to the new place. Matron has no need to butter Winston’s paws (just as well in war-time) (Growing Up)
When the Harveys’ hens arrive David says, ‘’I believe one butters their paws’’ Marling Hall). In Happy Returns, Cora tells Peggy that men need their paws buttering “to make them purr”.

Quarter deck – Part of a ship’s upper deck near the stern, traditionally reserved for officers.

258 Dead  burying – St Matthew chapter 8 verse 22: “Jesus said unto him, Follow me; and let the dead bury their dead”.

259 Mrs Hoare – Dowlah Cottage in Harefield, now the home of Freddy and Susan Belton, was, when she occupied it, crammed with bequests from numerous relatives. (The Headmistress Chapter 8) 

Man Friday – See notes for page 175.

260 Been sewing – Possibly a reference to burial at sea, when the sailmaker sewed a dead seaman in his hammock with a cannon ball to weight him down, or maybe just a joke at the expense of careless surgeons.  

Nasser – See remarks for page 37. “Half-caste” seems an unnecessary slur. In Happy Returns, Mrs Morland and Mrs Joram equate Persians and Egyptians with half-castes. Double Affair has a reference to the “mongrel Middle East”.

Lame-footed Goddess – Sounds like Nemesis, Greek goddess of retribution, but can find no reference to her being lame. In Love Among The Ruins, witnessing Richard Tebben’s come-uppance at the hands of Petrea, Mr Fanshawe remarks, “Well, the limping Avenger has overtaken him”. He is quoting Horace: “The sinner walks ahead, but seldom escapes the Avenger, following on limping foot”. Lydia’s maid, Palmer appears “like Retribution only far from limping she stood erect and implacable” (What Did It Mean?).

261 God’s Commandments – Exodus 20 xii “Honour thy father and thy mother”. Ephesians 6:2 “Honour thy father and thy mother; which is the first commandment with a promise”.

Wardy and Heathy – Sisters Ward and Heath; they used to share a flat in London with Sister Chiffinch, then took over Punshions in Northbridge after Miss Pemberton’s death.

263 Sister…rang up – She rings up to say the same thing twice in two pages, but perhaps she’s just being extra-conscientious.  

264 Maison Tozier – See remarks on Tozers for page 137.

Better get up – Rose has only just brought up her breakfast. 

265 Hie me – In Miss Bunting, she says, ‘’I would have been hieing me homewards…’’ All Angela Thirkell’s nurses and Matrons speak in the same way: ‘’Well, I must be hieing me back to see about the boys’ tea’’ (Matron of Southbridge School, County Chronicle).

Warming pan – James II (1633-1701) was hated by many as a Catholic, but tolerated because his heirs, Mary and Anne, were Protestant. Then in 1688, his second wife gave birth to a son. His enemies spread the story that her baby had been stillborn and a substitute smuggled in a warming pan.

266 Perfect freedomBook of Common Prayer: Collect for Peace,”The author of peace and perfect concord…whose service is perfect freedom”.

267 Thoroughly enjoyed – See remarks for page 135. In Growing Up, Lady Waring winces at Matron’s ‘’the boys would thoroughly enjoy it’’.

269 Hard knock – Doctor Ford told her about this on page 209.

Kind Hearts – 1949 British film: Louis Mazzini is intent on killing off the members of the D’Ascoyne family (all played by Alec Guinness) who stand between him and a dukedom. Conveniently, Admiral Lord Horatio D’Ascoyne causes a collision at sea and goes down with his ship.

270 Christian – Protagonist of Pilgrim’s Progress. In Happy Returns, Mr Parkinson amazes the Dean’s dinner party by describing “the very same Pilgrim’s Progress that Stevenson had described”.

Mrs Gamp – Drunken nurse in Dickens’s Martin Chuzzlewit. Angela Thirkell often quotes her ‘’this Piljian’s Projiss of a mortal wale’’.

272 Lady Norton – First met with here on page 21. Thwarted in her desire to live in the Close, she decides to settle in Cheltenham (Three Score and Ten).

Jointure – Estate settled on a wife for the period during which she survives her husband.

Muse – According to Greek myth there were nine Muses.

Bourton – Bourton-on-the-Water, in Gloucestershire.

Porton – Village, five miles from Salisbury (Barchester). There was a station there until 1968.

Moreton – Moreton-in-Marsh (no the), in Gloucestershire.

Morton’s Fork – A specious piece of reasoning by which contradictory arguments lead to the same conclusion. Derived from John Morton, Lord Chancellor under Henry VII, who held that someone living modestly was saving money and, so, could afford to pay taxes, while someone living extravagantly was obviously rich enough to pay.

Cockney rhymes – Nothing to do with rhyming slang, but may refer to Andrew Lang’s poem “Rhyme of Oxford Cockney Rhymes“. The Oxford English Dictionary is silent on the matter. 

273 William Harcourt – Introduced in Double Affair, and marries Edith Graham.

Marge in butter – In the last war the Warburys gave their servants margarine in butter wrappers (Cheerfulness Breaks In).

274 Harcourt girls – Elder sisters of William Harcourt. Even the most devoted Thirkellite feels that she goes Too Far in marrying Mr Oriel to Lady Gwendolen in Love at All Ages. As we have seen, there has been no indication that the elderly vicar is interested in any woman.

He inherited – “An old uncle and aunt died last year and left me quite a nice sum of money” (Jutland Cottage).

275 We metSong by Thomas Hanes Bayly (1797-1839). “We met, ‘twas in a crowd…He called me by name as the bride of another”.

Festina lente – Make haste slowly: more haste, less speed.

Amos BartonThe Sad Fortunes of the Reverend Amos Barton from Scenes of Clerical Life, George Eliot’s first published work. Amos Barton is an evangelical killjoy who neglects his wife; only when she gives birth prematurely and dies does he recognise his thoughtlessness. Sir Robert Graham, generally shown to be fairly cultured, confuses Eliot, G with Eliot, TS (Double Affair). More likely the sort of mistake Rose would make!

276 Miss Evans – Real name of George Eliot, who lived with George Henry Lewes from 1853 to 1878; he was unable to divorce his wife as he was held to be complicit in her adultery. Rather harsh description- she wasn’t a beauty and Victorian hairstyles did her no favours- but a not very intelligent horse?

Total wacancy – Dickens, Great Expectations. Blacksmith Joe, thinking of a present for Miss Havisham says, ‘’Even a set of [horse] shoes…might not act acceptable…in a total wacancy of hooves.’’ Also in The Duke’s Daughter and Jutland Cottage.

Mr Slope – Chaplain to Bishop Proudie: very Low Church and extremely unpleasant: pays court to Mr Harding’s widowed daughter, Eleanor. (Trollope, Barchester Towers)

Acacia House – In Peace Breaks Out we’re told “It was a peculiarity of the Close that every house had a number and no house except the Deanery…a name,” but then The Vinery appears in County Chronicle. Once Doctor Fewling moves in, the Bishopess, via the Bishop, tells him he must cut down the acacia, but of course he just has it pruned. (Love at All Ages).

277 Arabin – When Mr Arabin is appointed vicar of St Ewold’s, Archdeacon Grantly lectures him on all the improvements he must make to the vicarage. (It is Arabin whom Eleanor marries). Barchester Towers

The Clorths – (cloths) lower-class pronunciation which crops up frequently: Northbridge Rectory,Marling Hall, Growing Up, The Old Bank House, What Did It Mean?, Enter Sir Robert (twice), Never Too Late.

278 Staircase – Canon Joram’s staircase at The Vinery is “not inelegant” and boasts “wall-paintings of imaginary landscapes”. (County Chronicle)

Fire-escape – The nurseries at Pomfret Towers, situated at the top of the house as normal, had been provided by Old Lord Pomfret’s father with a fire-escape “consisting of a complicated apparatus of rope and on an iron framework”. (Pomfret Towers). Luckily it had never been used. The present Lord Pomfret shows the remains in What Did It Mean?

279 St Lawrence – Patron saint of cooks, martyred by being roasted on a gridiron.

Next world – Rather harsh to suggest that the Bishop and his wife are bound for Hell, but they do rouse extremely bitter feelings among the laity and especially among the clergy: the Dean is particularly vehement: “he would…like nothing better than to knock the Bishop down and jump on him, even if he were hanged for it” (Private Enterprise) and later hopes the couple will get spotted fever and die because of the cess pool under the Palace (The Old Bank House). Even the mild Mr Miller thinks “that if there were a hotter place than his garden he wished the Bishop were in it” (The Brandons).

Widow of Macfadyen – The Dean knows this: he was at the dinner party with her: page 143.

Captain Cuttle – Prominent character in Dombey and Son. Described as “A gentleman in a wide suit of blue with a hook instead of a hand attached to his right wrist. …He had been a pilot or a skipper or a privateersman, or all three perhaps; and was a very salt-looking man indeed.” Unclear why Fewling feels like him.  

Overlooked…wicked fairy – “Overlooked” in the sense of cursed, having had the evil eye put upon one: “Vile worm, thou wast o’erlook’d even in thy birth” (Merry Wives of Windsor) The most famous Wicked Fairy is the old one in Sleeping Beauty who’s not invited to the Princess’s christening. She turns up anyway and in revenge when the invited fairies are giving gifts of beauty, good temper etc., reveals her gift: the Princess will prick her finger on a spindle and die. Luckily one fairy’s able to change death to a sleep of one hundred years. Organising the christening of his twins, Robin says, ‘’short of a wicked fairy I think we have everything.’’ When Anne gets anxious he tells her that “the Dreadful Dowager was the nearest approach to a Wicked Fairy that the County could produce and she had not been asked”. (County Chronicle). Which is little comfort to Anne, as the Wicked Fairy hadn’t either!
In Love Among The Ruins Agnes, “with a rare flight of imagination” compares the Bishop’s christening a baby to a wicked fairy.

280 Ambassadress – notes page 27.

Crossed themselves – ‘’Is [your husband] a Catholic then?’’ Mrs Morland asks Madame Brownscu , who replies: ‘’’The word Catholic is to us like a red rug [sic] to a bull. We are Orthodox.‘ She crossed herself violently in what Mrs Morland afterwards described as a very upside-down and un-Christian kind of way” (Cheerfulness Breaks In). The Slavo-Lydians are Catholic (Love Among The Ruins), one of the many reasons for the countries’ enmity: there’s no chance of success for Lord Aberfordbury’s mission to promote good feeling between them! (A Double Affair)

The Last Chantey – Canon Fewling refers to the poem in Jutland Cottage.

281 Inasmuch… – “Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me.” Matthew 25.40

Canon Thorne – Angela Thirkell has forgotten that the Canon , described as “a peaceful elderly bachelor” in Cheerfulness Breaks In, and as “being unable to hear or understand” in Peace Breaks Out, had died in The Old Bank House (Mr Grantly took his funeral). Canon Thorne had lived in the Vinery and on his death the Dean offered the house to Canon Joram (County Chronicle). Like most clergy, he loathed the Bishop who had accused him of Mariolatry – worship of the Virgin Mary (CBI). The Bishop is very Low, as we know.

Intromissions – Interferences, meddling. Frequently used in the novels. In Miss Bunting, “The organist, flown with three days at one of the Three Choir Festivals…had begun to intromit, as the Rector very alarmingly put it, with the simple chants to which the congregation were accustomed.”

Girded his…armour – Ephesians 6.11 “Put on the whole armour of God, that ye may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil”. 

Whom the Lord… – Hebrews 12.6 “For whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth, and scourgeth every son whom he receiveth”. Dr Dale quotes the phrase in Miss Bunting referring to the Mothers’ Union banner.

Mrs Gamp – See note for page 270.

282 Mr Samuel Weller – Dickens, Pickwick Papers ’Yes, I have a pair of eyes,’ replied Sam, ‘’and that’s just it. If they wos a pair of patent double million magnifyin’ gas microscopes of hextra power, p’raps I might be able to see through a flight of stairs and a deal door…’’ Sam is Mr Pickwick’s servant.

Farm and farmyard – The set-up at Jutland Cottage could hardly be described as a farm. During the war Margot and her mother had “kept hens, ducks, rabbits and goats” (Jutland Cottage) but by the time Canon Fewling knows them there are only hens and the vegetable garden to tend. ‘’We did have goats in the war but no one wants their milk now, so we sold them.’’ (Jutland Cottage). The reference on page 79 to “the new bit of field the Admiral had taken into cultivation” is puzzling: given his parlous state of health, Margot’s father is unlikely to be doing much cultivating.

Unbecoming trousers – During the war Margot had worn trousers “pretty well day and night” (Jutland Cottage). Her mother “was one of those happy women for whom wars are made and ever since September the 3rd had not been seen in a  skirt except at church” (Cheerfulness Breaks In). Both ladies are “bouncing and masterful” though Margot’s not yet as fat as her mother, so trousers, though useful and “a wonderful economy” (CBI) can’t have been becoming to either lady. By this time – Canon Fewling knows them (and this passage is rather confusing, suggesting that the Phelpses live in Greshamsbury) Margot is indeed still wearing trousers round the house. But for visiting and “best” she has a depressing wardrobe including “well-worn tweeds which sagged where she sat behind,” a suit worn by Rose “when she was expecting” and a “shapeless artificial silk dress of mustard yellow with brown flowers on it…charity from a cousin of mother’s” Jutland Cottage). (Why does Margot accept cast-offs from Rose but not Hampton and Bent, who she’s been close to for much longer, enduring all the war years together – or perhaps that’s why?)

284 Importunity…in a Book – Persistence to the point of annoyance; praying over and over again. In Luke chapter 18, Jesus tells the parable of the judge who agrees to help a widow because she constantly bothered him: see page 119.






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